Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Page: 40-53
Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Activated Carbon Supported Co-Ni Bimetallic Catalysts Via Fischer-Tropsch Reaction to Produce Gasoline
Ahmed Shamil Albazzaz, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Abdulkareem GhassanAlsultan, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Salmiaton Ali, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Yun Hin Taufiq-Yaq, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Mohamad Amran Mohd Salleh, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Wan Azlina Wan Abdul Karim Ghani, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Received: Sep. 8, 2018;       Accepted: Sep. 20, 2018;       Published: Oct. 25, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jeece.20180303.11      View  179      Downloads  14
Abstract
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is a process which converts synthesized gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) to synthetic liquid fuels and valuable chemicals with the existence of metal catalysts and suitable operational conditions. Less costly and plentiful biomass from agricultural waste can be converted into synthesized gas by thermal gasification. FTS derived Biofuel is a high quality, clean fuel and have a very low sulfur content in comparison to conventional fuel. In this study, FTS reaction was investigated in a tubular fixed bed reactor on prepared Co-Ni bimetallic catalysts supported by walnut shells derived activated carbon (AC) to study the synergistic effect of the active metals on the catalyst’s physical properties as well as hydrocarbon liquid product distribution. Employed catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation method and were characterized afterwards by XRD, TPR-H2, BET surface area and FESEM-EDX techniques to identify the morphology and physical properties of the catalysts. Maximum gasoline selectivity of 69% was achieved on the 7Co7Ni/AC bimetallic catalyst, which was considered as the best bimetallic catalyst among others. Temperature increase from 220°C to 300°C enhanced gasoline selectivity from 69% to 92%. In addition, carbon monoxide (CO) conversion increased as well from 43% to 65% on the 7Co7Ni/AC bimetallic catalyst. On the contrary, increased reaction pressure from 1 bar to 9 bar decreased gasoline selectivity from 92% to 36% but increased CO conversion is from 65% to 84% on the 7Co7Ni/AC bimetallic catalyst. The optimum reaction conditions were considered based on the maximum selectivity of gasoline which was 300°C reaction temperature and 1 bar reaction pressure. In conclusion, the employing of bimetallic Co-Ni catalysts supported by AC in Fischer-Tropsch reaction has significantly enhanced the catalytic activity and improved gasoline selectivity due to the achieved high metal dispersion, better reduction degree and large surface area. Higher reaction temperatures increased gasoline selectivity whereas, higher reaction pressures decreased gasoline selectivity.
Keywords
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Clean Energy, Gasoline, Syngas, Bimetallic Catalysts
To cite this article
Ahmed Shamil Albazzaz, Abdulkareem GhassanAlsultan, Salmiaton Ali, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yaq, Mohamad Amran Mohd Salleh, Wan Azlina Wan Abdul Karim Ghani, Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Activated Carbon Supported Co-Ni Bimetallic Catalysts Via Fischer-Tropsch Reaction to Produce Gasoline, Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 40-53. doi: 10.11648/j.jeece.20180303.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
R. Bechara, D. Balloy, and D. Vanhove, “Catalytic properties of Co/Al2O3 system for hydrocarbon synthesis,” Appl. Catal. A Gen., vol. 207, no. 1–2, pp. 343–353, 2001.
[2]
G. A. Alsultan, N. Asikin-Mijan, H. V. Lee, A. S. Albazzaz, and Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, “Deoxygenation of waste cooking to renewable diesel over walnut shell- derived nanorode activated carbon supported CaO-La2O3 catalyst,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 151, 2017.
[3]
G. Abdulkareem-alsultan, N. Asikin-mijan, H. V Lee, and Y. H. Taufiq-yap, “A new route for the synthesis of La-Ca oxide supported on nano activated carbon via vacuum impregnation method for one pot esterification- transesterification reaction,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 304, pp. 61–71, 2016.
[4]
N. Asikin-Mijan, H. V. Lee, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, G. Abdulkrem-Alsultan, M. S. Mastuli, and H. C. Ong, “Optimization study of SiO2-Al2O3 supported bifunctional acid–base NiO-CaO for renewable fuel production using response surface methodology,” Energy Convers. Manag., no. November, 2016.
[5]
Y. Yang, H. Xiang, Y. Xu, L. Bai, and Y. Li, “Effect of potassium promoter on precipitated iron-manganese catalyst for Fischer – Tropsch synthesis,” vol. 266, pp. 181–194, 2004.
[6]
Q. Tang, P. Wang, Q. Zhang, and Y. W. Ã, “Utilization of Microporous and Mesoporous Materials as Supports of Cobalt Catalysts for Regulating Product Distributions in Fischer – Tropsch Synthesis,” vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 9–10, 2006.
[7]
K. Klaigaew, C. Samart, C. Chaiya, Y. Yoneyama, N. Tsubaki, and P. Reubroycharoen, “Effect of preparation methods on activation of cobalt catalyst supported on silica fiber for Fischer – Tropsch synthesis,” Chem. Eng. J., 2014.
[8]
T. T. Phadi, “Titanates and titania coated titanates as supports in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis By Titanates and titania coated titanates as supports in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.”
[9]
X. Lu, P. H. D. Thesis, and X. Lu, “SYNTHESIS : TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING,” 2011.
[10]
K. Jalama, “Fischer Tropsch Synthesis over supported cobalt catalysts:Effect of ethanol addition, Precursors and gold doping, PhD thesis,University of the Witwatersrand,” 2007.
[11]
W. M. Hexana, “A systematic study of the effect of chemical promoters on the precipitated Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis catalyst,” 2009.
[12]
A. Myriam and M. Motchelaho, “Iron and Cobalt Catalysts Supported on Carbon Nanotubes for Use in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis,” 2011.
[13]
G. Abdulkreem-Alsultan, A. Islam, J. Janaun, M. S. Mastuli, and Y.-H. Taufiq-Yap, “Synthesis of structured carbon nanorods for efficient hydrogen storage,” Mater. Lett., Sep. 2016.
[14]
M. A. A. Aziz, A. A. Jalil, S. Triwahyono, and A. Ahmad, “ChemInform Abstract : CO2 Methanation over Heterogeneous Catalysts : Recent Progress and Future Prospects,” no. May, 2015.
[15]
T. Fu, Y. Jiang, J. Lv, and Z. Li, “Effect of carbon support on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity and product distribution over Co-based catalysts,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 110, pp. 141–149, 2013.
[16]
N. Asikin-mijan, H. V Lee, and Y. H. Taufiq-yap, “Chemical Engineering Research and Design Synthesis and catalytic activity of hydration – dehydration treated clamshell derived CaO for biodiesel production,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., vol. 102, pp. 368–377, 2015.
[17]
A. A. Mirzaei, R. Habibpour, and E. Kashi, “Preparation and optimization of mixed iron cobalt oxide catalysts for conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins,” Appl. Catal. A Gen., vol. 296, no. 2, pp. 222–231, 2005.
[18]
H. Habazaki et al., “Co-methanation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on supported nickel and cobalt catalysts prepared from amorphous alloys,” Appl. Catal. a-General, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 131–140, 1998.
[19]
A. A. Mirzaei, R. Sarani, H. R. Azizi, S. Vahid, and H. O. Torshizi, “Kinetics modeling of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on the unsupported Fe-Co-Ni (ternary) catalyst prepared using co-precipitation procedure,” Fuel, vol. 140, no. October, pp. 701–710, 2015.
[20]
X. Ma, Q. Sun, W. Ying, and D. Fang, “Effects of promoters on catalytic performance of Fe-Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,” J. Nat. Gas Chem., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 354–358, 2009.
[21]
Z. Cheng-hua, Y. Yong, T. A. O. Zhi-chao, X. Hong-wei, and L. I. Yong-wang, “Structural properties and reduction behavior of Ni promoted FeMnK / SiO 2 catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,” vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 2–6, 2006.
[22]
T. Li, H. Wang, Y. Yang, H. Xiang, and Y. Li, “Study on an iron-nickel bimetallic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 118, pp. 1–8, 2014.
[23]
A. Alsultan, A. Mijan, and T. Yap, “Preparation of Activated Carbon from Walnut Shell Doped La and Ca Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil,” Mater. Sci. Forum, vol. 840, no. 3, pp. 348–352, 2016.
[24]
K. K. Ramasamy, M. Gray, H. Job, and Y. Wang, “Direct syngas hydrogenation over a Co – Ni bimetallic catalyst : Process parameter optimization,” Chem. Eng. Sci., no. 2010, pp. 1–8, 2015.
[25]
J. Thiessen, A. Rose, J. Meyer, A. Jess, and D. Curulla-ferré, “Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Effects of manganese and reduction promoters on carbon nanotube supported cobalt catalysts in Fischer – Tropsch synthesis,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater., vol. 164, pp. 199–206, 2012.
[26]
H. Reza, A. Akbar, M. Kaykhaii, and M. Mansouri, “Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering Fischer e Tropsch synthesis : Studies effect of reduction variables on the performance of Fe e Ni e Co catalyst,” J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., vol. 18, pp. 484–491, 2014.
[27]
A. Tavasoli, M. Trépanier, R. M. Malek Abbaslou, A. K. Dalai, and N. Abatzoglou, “Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on mono- and bimetallic Co and Fe catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1486–1494, 2009.
[28]
J. A. Diaz et al., “Cobalt and iron supported on carbon nanofibers as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 128, pp. 417–424, 2014.
[29]
S. Ali, N. Mohd Zabidi, and D. Subbarao, “Correlation between Fischer-Tropsch catalytic activity and composition of catalysts,” Chem. Cent. J., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 68, 2011.
[30]
E. Rytter, T. H. Skagseth, S. Eri, and A. O. Sjåstad, “Cobalt Fischer - Tropsch Catalysts Using Nickel Promoter as a Rhenium Substitute to Suppress Deactivation,” pp. 4140–4148, 2010.
[31]
M. Trépanier, A. Tavasoli, A. K. Dalai, and N. Abatzoglou, “Fischer – Tropsch synthesis over carbon nanotubes supported cobalt catalysts in a fi xed bed reactor : In fl uence of acid treatment,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 367–374, 2009.
[32]
R. H. Hesas, A. Arami-niya, W. Mohd, A. Wan, and J. N. Sahu, “Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon,” vol. 8, pp. 2950–2966, 2013.
[33]
S. Qin, C. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Yang, H. Xiang, and Y. Li, “Fe-Mo interactions and their influence on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance,” Appl. Catal. A Gen., vol. 392, no. 1–2, pp. 118–126, 2011.
[34]
O. Shea and V. A. De Pen, “Fischer – Tropsch synthesis on mono- and bimetallic Co and Fe catalysts in fixed-bed and slurry reactors,” vol. 326, pp. 65–73, 2007.
[35]
P. Nikparsa, A. L. I. A. Mirzaei, and R. Rauch, “Modification of Co / Al 2 O 3 Fischer – Tropsch Nanocatalysts by Adding Ni : A Kinetic Approach,” 2016.
[36]
T. Ishihara, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over SiO2-supported FeCo, CoNi and NiFe bimetallic catalysts,” Appl. Catal., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 225–238, 1987.
[37]
R. De Haan, G. Joorst, E. Mokoena, and C. P. Nicolaides, “Non-sulfided nickel supported on silicated alumina as catalyst for the hydrocracking of n -hexadecane and of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch wax,” vol. 327, pp. 247–254, 2007.
[38]
S. Wang, Q. Yin, J. Guo, and L. Zhu, “In fl uence of Ni Promotion on Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Production over Co / CNT Catalysts,” 2013.
[39]
V. A. De La Peña O’Shea, M. C. Álvarez-Galván, J. M. Campos-Martin, N. N. Menéndez, J. D. Tornero, and J. L. G. Fierro, “Surface and structural features of Co-Fe oxide nanoparticles deposited on a silica substrate,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., no. 24, pp. 5057–5068, 2006.
[40]
R. C. Reuel and C. H. Bartholomew, “Effects of support and dispersion on the CO hydrogenation activity/selectivity properties of cobalt,” J. Catal., vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 78–88, 1984.
[41]
A. A. Mirzaei, A. B. babaei, M. Galavy, and A. Youssefi, “A silica supported Fe-Co bimetallic catalyst prepared by the sol/gel technique: Operating conditions, catalytic properties and characterization,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 335–347, 2010.
[42]
M. Zaman, A. Khodadi, and Y. Mortazavi, “Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over cobalt dispersed on carbon nanotubes-based supports and activated carbon,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 1214–1219, 2009.
[43]
L. Guczi et al., “CO hydrogenation over cobalt and iron catalysts supported over multiwall carbon nanotubes: Effect of preparation,” J. Catal., vol. 244, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2006.
[44]
B. Todic, L. Nowicki, N. Nikacevic, and D. B. Bukur, “Fischer-Tropsch synthesis product selectivity over an industrial iron-based catalyst: Effect of process conditions,” Catal. Today, vol. 261, pp. 28–39, 2016.
[45]
Z. Yan, Z. Wang, D. B. Bukur, and D. W. Goodman, “Fischer – Tropsch synthesis on a model Co / SiO 2 catalyst,” J. Catal., vol. 268, no. 2, pp. 196–200, 2009.
[46]
S. Farzad, A. Rashidi, A. Haghtalab, and M. A. Mandegari, “Study of effective parameters in the Fischer Tropsch synthesis using monolithic CNT supported cobalt catalysts,” Fuel, vol. 132, pp. 27–35, 2014.
[47]
T. O. Honsho, T. Kitano, T. Miyake, and T. Suzuki, “Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co-loaded oxidized diamond catalyst,” Fuel, vol. 94, pp. 170–177, 2012.
Browse journals by subject